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Found 7 results

  1. What you want from a high performance racing oil? The modern engine designs of today need lubricants that can handle higher running temps to ensure viscosity consistency, while reducing consumption and oil film breakdown. Have you not noticed how modern engine run hotter? They are generally running 10-15deg C hotter or more when supercharged/ turbocharged. This is to improve combustion and reduce emissions. So how hot is hot when a car overheats? Enough to break down most oils and melt soft metal bearings, that’s how hot. Everyday oils are not able to handle excessive heat though and will reduce in viscosity by as much as 40% once it reaches 130 °C which means a 10w40 will perform like a 10w25. Motul’s high performance Ester synthetics are designed to handle higher temps without affecting the viscosity. High Performance engines always increase the load pressures placed upon moving components. High lift cams and stiffer valve springs load up the lifters, rocker arms and valve ends. Newer designs incorporate gear driven overhead cams which bring a new challenge. More internal gearing will shear the engine oil faster. High performance engines also need a balanced friction modifier package so that the ring seals stay strong, roller and ball bearings roll in the race and plain bearings have as little drag as possible. Because of this, Motul adds Extreme Pressure (EP) additives such as Zinc (ZDDP) and a STRONG EP additive, called a Sulfurized Ester to handle the shear/meshing of the engine. EP additives come into play at the instant an extreme pressure is applied and high temperatures are created. ZINC lays down a barrier that prevents metal to metal contact and the SULFURIZED ESTER produces a sacrificial film that is destroyed during very strong extreme pressures. The key advantage of Sulfurized Ester is that it prevents SEIZING. EP additives are generally corrosive especially those used in car gearboxes. The other advantage of Esters is that it is far less corrosive and more environmentally safe. Advertisements for oil products being tested with a ball bearing under 100,000 pounds of pressure fail to mention that most EP additives are corrosive. Performance engines used in endurance types of competition need strong ANTI-ACID (BASE, TBN, total base number). Condensation (the steam that you see coming out of your tail pipe in the morning) is a natural by-product of combustion in an engine. This condensation, which is acidic water, passes by the rings under compression into the crankcase and mixes with the sulphur, SULFURIC ACID is created. ANTI-ACID (Base) neutralizes the acid before it can cause any damage. E85 engines have it worse. E85 creates a greater acidic dilution than conventional ULP so look for a higher TBN is you run E85. High revving engines need strong Anti-Foam Additives. Higher RPMs aerates the oil more and bubbles will cause damage to your engine. Why? Foam is air; air will compress and also insulates. Air being compressed under load will separate oil and permit metal to metal contact. It also doesn’t transmit heat from hot metal parts to the oil very well or vice versa. Oil temp’s can rise due to inefficient heat exchange. Another major problem is oil pumps are not designed to pump air and your oil pressure will drop. Endurance engines need strong dispersants to suspend materials and combustion by-products which are created and rubbed off during normal operations. If you find worn components in your older race engine, ask yourself a question: Where did the material go? It has been compressed and the material is still there, just in a different place; or The materials were rubbed off and washed right into the oil! You want the material to stay in tiny pieces and stay mixed in the oil so that the oil filter can do its job. There are many devices on the market now that surround the filter with a magnet to capture some wear metals. Race engines need a strong detergent. With more heat generation (more horsepower per ci) trying to fry the oil onto the engine parts, carbon build-up and other by-products from combustion need to be washed away quickly so it doesn’t end up clogging the oil galleries. These are only some of the points Motul considers when designing high performance fluids. As discussed earlier, synthetics can handle much higher running temperatures than conventional petroleum oils and can withstand more stress. Many people ask, so what! I don’t push my vehicle that hard and I change oil every 3000kms. I don’t need expensive performance oil in my car. This type of thinking is wrong! Picture this; it’s a hot summer’s day and you are in peak hour traffic. For whatever reason, your car starts to get hot, real hot (Thermo fan stops working or a radiator hose breaks, whatever it may be). What oil would you like to have in your car? A mineral oil that acts like butter which burns up and evaporates very quickly, coking up your piston rings and lifters with carbon. Or Motul Synthetic/Ester oil that can handle super high RUNNING temps without the resulting damage (160°C to 190°C)? Motul High Performance Synthetic Ester oils are INSURANCE not just maintenance. The same is true about brake fluids and gear oils. Brake fluid only fails you when you need it the most – when braking! Same goes for engine oil. For further information regarding the Motul range, visit www.motul.com.au! Join us on FB https://www.facebook...323033041043007
  2. Trying to pick the right oil for your car? Can't work out what the hell API, ACEA, ILSAC and all the rest mean?? The manufacturer recommends genuine OEM oil, but can you use another oil? Here is a guide to give you a full understanding of what's what when you are looking for the right oil. Here's a few basics when it comes to lubricants: All will have the purpose for which it is intended (i.e. Motor oil, Gear oil etc) All will have the viscosity, like 10w40 or 15w50 etc for engine oils and 75w90 etc for gear oils Almost all will have the specifications that it meets, either or both API and ACEA ratings. 300V being one of the exclusions where it exceeds specifications. Some lubricants will also have OEM approvals that it carries and the codes (i.e. MB229.3, VW503.00, BMW LL01 etc) You might find Dexos1 or Dexos2 approved or Dexos2 Specific. Some may be OEM specific, as in the Motul Specific VW504-507 5W30. All oils are intended for an application and in general are not interchangeable. You would not for example put an Automatic Transmission Oil or a Gear Oil in your engine! It's important to know what the oil's intended purpose is. VISCOSITY Most oils on the shelves today are "Multigrades", which simply means that the oil falls into 2 viscosity grades (i.e. 10w-40 etc) Multigrades were first developed some 50 years ago to avoid the old routine of using a thinner oil in winter and a thicker oil in summer. In a 10w-40 for example the 10w bit (W = winter, not weight or watt or anything else for that matter) simply means that the oil must have a certain maximum viscosity/flow at low temperature. The lower the "W" number the better the oil's cold temperature/cold start performance. The 40 in a 10w-40 simply means that the oil must fall within certain viscosity limits at 100°C. This is a fixed limit and all oils that end in 40 must achieve these limits. Once again the lower the number, the thinner the oil: a 30 oil is thinner than a 40 oil at 100°C etc. Your handbook will specify whether a 30, 40 or 50 etc is required. SPECIFICATIONS Specifications are important as these indicate the performance of the oil and whether they have met or passed the latest tests, or whether the formulation is effectively obsolete or out of date. There are two specifications that you should look for on any oil bottle and these are API (American Petroleum Institute) and ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Europeens d'Automobiles) all good oils should contain both of these, and an understanding of what they mean is important. API This is the more basic as it is split (for passenger cars) into two catagories. S = Petrol and C = Diesel, most oils carry both petrol 'S' and diesel 'C' specifications. The following table shows how up to date the specifications the oil are: PETROL SN Introduced in October 2010 for 2011 and older vehicles, designed to provide improved high temperature deposit protection for pistons, more stringent sludge control, and seal compatibility. API SN with Resource Conserving matches ILSAC GF-5 by combining API SN performance with improved fuel economy, turbocharger protection, emission control system compatibility, and protection of engines operating on ethanol-containing fuels up to E85. SM Introduced on 30 November 2004. Category SM oils are designed to provide improved oxidation resistance, improved deposit protection, better wear protection, and better low-temperature performance over the life of the oil. Some SM oils may also meet the latest ILSAC specification and/or qualify as Energy Conserving. They may be used where API Service Category SJ and SL earlier categories are recommended. SL 2001 Gasoline Engine Service. Category SL was adopted to describe engine oils for use in 2001. It is for use in service typical of gasoline engines in present and earlier passenger cars, sports utility vehicles, vans and light trucks operating under vehicle manufacturers recommended maintenance procedures. Oils meeting API SL requirements have been tested according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Product Approval Code of Practice and may utilize the API Base Oil Interchange and Viscosity Grade Engine Testing Guidelines. They may be used where API Service Category SJ and earlier categories are recommended. SJ 1997 Gasoline Engine Service. Category SJ was adopted in 1996 to describe engine oil first mandated in 1997. It is for use in service typical of gasoline engines in present and earlier passenger cars, vans, and light trucks operating under manufacturers recommended maintenance procedures. Oils meeting API SH requirements have been tested according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Product Approval Code of Practice and may utilize the API Base Oil Interchange and Viscosity Grade Engine Testing Guidelines. They may be used where API Service Category SH and earlier categories are recommended. SH Obsolete For model year 1996 and older engines. SG Obsolete For model year 1993 and older engines. SF Obsolete For model year 1988 and older engines. SE Obsolete For model year 1979 and older engines. SD Obsolete For model year 1971 and older engines. SC Obsolete For model year 1967 and older engines. SB Obsolete For older engines. Use only when specifically recommended by the manufacturer. SA Obsolete For older engines; no performance requirement. Use only when specifically recommended by the manufacturer. Note: All specifications prior to SJ are now obsolete and, although suitable for some older vehicles, are more than 10 years old, and do not provide the same level of performance or protection as the more up to date SL, SM and SN specifications. DIESEL CJ-4 Current - 2006 Introduced in 2006 for high-speed four-stroke engines. Designed to meet 2007 on-highway exhaust emission standards. CJ-4 oils are compounded for use in all applications with diesel fuels ranging in sulphur content up to 500ppm (0.05% by weight). However, use of these oils with greater than 15ppm sulfur fuel may impact exhaust after treatment system durability and/or oil drain intervals. CJ-4 oils are effective at sustaining emission control system durability where particulate filters and other advanced after treatment systems are used. CJ-4 oils exceed the performance criteria of CF-4, C-4, AH-4 and C-4. CI-4 Plus Current - 2004 Used in conjunction with API C-4, the " CI-4 PLUS" designation identifies oils formulated to provide a higher level of protection against soot-related viscosity increase and viscosity loss due to shear in diesel engines. Like Energy Conserving, CI-4 PLUS appears in the lower portion of the API Service Symbol "Donut." CI-4 Severe-Duty Diesel Engine Service The CI-4 performance requirements describe oils for use in those high speed, four-stroke cycle diesel engines designed to meet 2004 exhaust emission standards, to be implemented October 2002. These oils are compounded for use in all applications with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 0.05% by weight. These oils are especially effective at sustaining engine durability where Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and other exhaust emission componentry may be used. Optimum protection is provided for control of corrosive wear tendencies, low and high temperature stability, soot handling properties, piston deposit control, valve train wear, oxidative thickening, foaming and viscosity loss due to shear. CI-4 oils are superior in performance to those meeting API CH-4, CG-4 and CF-4 and can effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories. CH-4 Severe-Duty Diesel Engine Service This service oils are suitable for high speed, four-stroke diesel engines designed to meet 1998 exhaust emission standards and are specifically compounded for use with diesel fuels ranging in sulfur content up to 0.5% weight. CH-4 oils are superior in performance to those meeting API CF-4 and API CG-4 and can effectively lubricate engines calling for those API Service Categories. CG-4 Obsolete This category describes oils for use in high speed four-stroke-cycle diesel engines used in both heavy-duty on-highway (0.05% wt sulfur fuel) and off-highway (less than 0.5% wt sulfur fuel) applications. CG-4 oils provide effective control over high temperature piston deposits, wear, corrosion, foaming, oxidation stability, and soot accumulation. These oils are specially effective in engines designed to meet 1994 exhaust emission standards and may also be used in engines requiring API Service Categories CD, CE, and CF-4. Oils designed for this service have been in existence since 1994. CF-2 Obsolete Service typical of two-stroke cycle diesel engines requiring highly effective control over cylinder and ring-face scuffing and deposits. Oils designed for this service have been in existence since 1994 and may be used when API Service Category CD-II is recommended. These oils do not necessarily meet the requirements of API CF or CF-4 unless they pass the test requirements for these categories. CF Obsolete Service typical of indirect-injection diesel engines and other diesel engines that use a broad range of fuel types, including those using fuel with high sulfur content; for example, over 0.5% wt. Effective control of piston deposits, wear and copper-containing bearing corrosion is essential for these engines, which may be naturally aspirated, turbocharged or supercharged. Oils designated for this service have been in existence since 1994 and may be used when API Service Category CD is recommended. CF-4 Obsolete Service typical of high speed, four-stroke cycle diesel engines. API CF-4 oils exceed the requirements for the API CE category, providing improved control of oil consumption and piston deposits. These oils should be used in place of API CE oils. They are particularly suited for on-highway, heavy-duty truck applications. When combined with the appropriate S category, they can also be used in gasoline and diesel powered personal vehicles i.e., passenger cars, light trucks and vans when recommended by the vehicle or engine manufacturer. CE Obsolete Service typical of certain turbocharged or supercharged heavy-duty diesel engines, manufactured since 1983 and operated under both low speed, high load and high speed, high load conditions. Oils designed for this service may also be used when API Service Category CD is recommended. CD-II Obsolete Service typical of two-stroke cycle diesel engines requiring highly effective control of wear and deposits. Oils designed for this service also meet all performance requirements of API Service Category CD. CD Obsolete Service typical of certain naturally aspirated, turbocharged or supercharged diesel engines where highly effective control of wear and deposits is vital, or when using fuels with a wide quality range (including high-sulfur fuels). Oils designed for this service were introduced in 1955 and provide protection from high temperature deposits and bearing corrosion in these diesel engines. CC Obsolete Service typical of certain naturally aspirated, turbocharged or supercharged diesel engines operated in moderate to severe-duty service, and certain heavy-duty gasoline engines. Oils designed for this service provide protection from bearing corrosion, rust, corrosion and from high to low temperature deposits in gasoline engines. They were introduced in 1961. CB Obsolete Service typical of diesel engines operated in mild to moderate duty, but with lower quality fuels, which necessitate more protection from wear and deposits; occasionally has included gasoline engines in mild service. Oils designed for this service were introduced in 1949. They provide necessary protection from bearing corrosion and from high temperature deposits in naturally aspirated diesel engines with higher sulfur fuels. CA Obsolete Service typical of diesel engines operated in mild to moderate duty with high quality fuels; occasionally has included gasoline engines in mild service. Oils designed for this service provide protection from bearing corrosion and ring-belt deposits in some naturally aspirated diesel engines when using fuels of such quality that they impose no unusual requirements for wear and deposits protection. They were widely used in the 1940s and 1950s but should not be used in any engine unless specifically recommended by the equipment manufacturer. Note: All specifications prior to CH4 are now obsolete and, although suitable for some older vehicles, are more than 10 years old and do not provide the same level of performance or protection as the more up to date CH4 & CJ4 specifications. If you want a better more up to date oil specification then look for SL, SM, SN, CH4, CI4 and CJ4 ACEA This is the European equivalent of API (US) and is more specific in what the performance of the oil actually is. A = Petrol, B = Diesel and C = Catalyst compatible or low SAPS (Sulphated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulphur). Unlike API the ACEA specs are split into performance/application catagories as follows: A1 Fuel economy petrol A2 Standard performance level (now obsolete) A3 High performance and/or extended drain A4 Reserved for future use in certain direct injection engines A5 Combines A1 fuel economy with A3 performance B1 Fuel economy diesel B2 Standard performance level (now obsolete) B3 High performance and/or extended drain B4 For direct injection car diesel engines B5 Combines B1 fuel economy with B3/B4 performance C1-04 Petrol and Light duty Diesel engines, based on A5/B5-04 low SAPS, two way catalyst compatible. C2-04 Petrol and light duty Diesel engines, based on A5/B5-04 mid SAPS, two way catalyst compatible. C3-04 Petrol and light duty Diesel engines, based on A5/B5-04 mid SAPS, two way catalyst compatible, Higher performance levels due to higher HTHS. Note: SAPS = Sulphated Ash, Phosphorous and Sulphur. Technically speaking: A/B : Gasolene and Diesel engine oils A1/B1 Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use at extended drain intervals in gasoline engines and car & light van diesel engines specifically designed to be capable of using low friction low viscosity oils with a high temperature / high shear rate viscosity of 2.6 mPa*s for xW/20 and 2.9 to 3.5 mPa.s for all other viscosity grades. These oils are unsuitable for use in some engines. Consult owner manual or handbook if in doubt. A3/B3 Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use in high performance gasoline engines and car & light van diesel engines and/or for extended drain intervals where specified by the engine manufacturer, and/or for year-round use of low viscosity oils, and/or for severe operating conditions as defined by the engine manufacturer. A3/B4 Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use in high performance gasoline and direct injection diesel engines, but also suitable for applications described under A3/B3. A5/B5 Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use at extended drain intervals in high performance gasoline engines and car & light van diesel engines designed to be capable of using low friction low viscosity oils with a High temperature / High shear rate (HTHS) viscosity of 2.9 to 3.5 mPa.s. These oils are unsuitable for use in some engines. Consult owner manual or handbook if in doubt. C : Catalyst compatibility oils C1 Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use as catalyst compatible oil in vehicles with DPF and TWC in high performance car and light van diesel and gasoline engines requiring low friction, low viscosity, low SAPS oils with a minimum HTHS viscosity of 2.9 mPa.s. These oils will increase the DPF and TWC life and maintain the vehicles fuel economy. Warning: these oils have the lowest SAPS limits and are unsuitable for use in some engines. Consult owner manual or handbook if in doubt. C2 Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use as catalyst compatible oil in vehicles with DPF and TWC in high performance car and light van diesel and gasoline engines designed to be capable of using low friction, low viscosity oils with a minimum HTHS viscosity of 2.9mPa.s. These oils will increase the DPF and TWC life and maintain the vehicles fuel economy. Warning: these oils are unsuitable for use in some engines. Consult owner manual or handbook if in doubt. C3 Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use as catalyst compatible oil in vehicles with DPF and TWC in high performance car and light van diesel and gasoline engines, with a minimum HTHS viscosity of 3.5mPa.s. These oils will increase the DPF and TWC life. Warning: these oils are unsuitable for use in some engines. Consult owner manual or handbook if in doubt. C4 Stable, stay-in-grade oil intended for use as catalyst compatible oil in vehicles with DPF and TWC in high performance car and light van diesel and gasoline engines requiring low SAPS oil with a minimum HTHS viscosity of 3.5mPa.s. These oils will increase the DPF and TWC life. Warning: these oils are unsuitable for use in some engines. Consult owner manual or handbook if in doubt. E : Heavy Duty Diesel engine oils E4 Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of piston cleanliness, wear, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under very severe conditions, e.g. significantly extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for engines without particulate filters, and for some EGR engines and some engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. However, recommendations may differ between engine manufacturers so Driver Manuals and/or Dealers shall be consulted if in doubt. E6 Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing excellent control of piston cleanliness, wear, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under very severe conditions, e.g. significantly extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for EGR engines, with or without particulate filters, and for engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. E6 quality is strongly recommended for engines fitted with particulate filters and is designed for use in combination with low sulphur diesel fuel. However, recommendations may differ between engine manufacturers so Driver Manuals and/or Dealers shall be consulted if in doubt. E7 Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to piston cleanliness and bore polishing. It further provides excellent wear control, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under severe conditions, e.g. extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for engines without particulate filters, and for most EGR engines and most engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. However, recommendations may differ between engine manufacturers so Driver Manuals and/or Dealers shall be consulted if in doubt. E9 Stable, stay-in-grade oil providing effective control with respect to piston cleanliness and bore polishing. It further provides excellent wear control, soot handling and lubricant stability. It is recommended for highly rated diesel engines meeting Euro I, Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV and Euro V emission requirements and running under severe conditions, e.g. extended oil drain intervals according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. It is suitable for engines with or without particulate filters, and for most EGR engines and for most engines fitted with SCR NOx reduction systems. E9 is strongly recommended for engines fitted with particulate filters and is designed for use in combination with low sulphur diesel fuel. However, recommendations may differ between engine manufacturers so Drivers Manuals and/or Dealers should be consulted if in doubt. Put simply, A3/B3, A5/B5 and C3 oils are the better quality, stay in grade performance oils. ILSAC Specifications ILSAC, International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee, is formed in 1992 by AAMA (American Automobile Manufacturers Association, representatives of DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company and General Motors Corpo-ration) and JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association) to define the need, parameters, licensing and administration of lubricant specifications. Together with the Tripartite system (API, SAE and ASTM) the formed EOLCS, the Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System. ILSAC oils often carry the API Service Symbol (Donut) including the Energy Conserving designation and/or API Certification Mark (Starburst). ILSAC GF-1 The ILSAC GF-1 standard indicates the oil meets both API SH and the Energy Conserving II (EC-II) requirements. It was created in 1990 and upgraded in 1992 and became the minimum requirement for oil used in American and Japanese automobiles. ILSAC GF-2 ILSAC GF-2 replaced GF-1 in 1996. The oil must meet both API SJ and EC-II requirements. The GF-2 standards requires 0W-30, 0W-40, 5W-20, 5W-30, 5W-40, 5W-50, 10W-30, 10W-40 and 10W-50 motor oils to meet stringent requirements for phosphorus content, low temperature operation, high temperature deposits and foam control. ILSAC GF-3 An ILSAC GF-3 an oil must meet both API SL and the EC-II requirements. The GF-3 standard has more stringent parameters regarding long-term effects of the oil on the vehicle emission system, improved fuel economy and improved volatility, deposit control and viscosity performance. The standard also requires less additive degradation and reduced oil consumption rates over the service life of the oil. ILSAC GF-4 ILSAC GF-4 is similar to the API SM service category, but it requires an additional sequence VIB Fuel Economy Test (ASTM D6837). ILSAC GF-5 Introduced in October 2010 for 2011 and older vehicles, designed to provide improved high temperature deposit protection for pistons and turbochargers, more stringent sludge control, improved fuel economy, enhanced emission control system compatibility, seal compatibility, and protection of engines operating on ethanol-containing fuels up to E85. DEXOS1 and DEXOS2 DEXOS2 is a new GM licenced product. For more information, go to their website DEXOS2 Worth noting, Motul have 2 products which are licenced globally. JASO is one you may never come across, but just in case you do... JASO oil specifications 2T specifications Japenese motorcycle manufacturers found the limits demanded by the API TC specifications too loose. Oils meeting the API TC standard still produced excessive smoke and could not prevent exhaust blocking. Therefore the Japanese Engine Oil Standards Implementaion Pansel (JASO) introduced the following specifications: JASO FA Original spec established regulating lubricity, detergency, initial torque, exhaust smoke and exhaust system blocking. JASO FB Increased lubricity, detergency, exhaust smoke and exhaust system blocking requirements over FA. JASO FC Lubricity and initial torque requirements same as FB, however far higher detergency, exhaust smoke and exhaust system blocking requirements over FB. JASO FD Same as FC with far higher detergency requirement. 4T specifications Modern passenger car engine oils contain more and more friction modifiers. While this is the good thing for those segments (reduces wear and fuel consumption) it's bad for the motorcycles. At least for those motorcycles which use engine oil to lubricate their transmission and wet clutch. JASO introduced the MA and MB specification to distinguish between friction modified and non friction modified engine oils. Most four-stroke motorcycles with wet clutches need a JASO MA oil. JASO MA Japanese standard for special oil which can be used in 4-stroke motorcycle engine with one oilsystem for engine, gearbox and wet clutchsystem. Fluid is non-friction modified. JASO MB MB grade oils are classified as the lowest friction oils among motorcycle four-cycle oils. Not to be used where a JASO MA grade oil is required. APPROVALS Many oils mention various OEM's on the bottle, the most common in the UK being VW, MB or BMW but do not be misled into thinking that you are buying a top oil because of this. Oil Companies send their oils to OEM's for approval however some older specs are easily achieved and can be done so with the cheapest of mineral oils. Newer specifications are always more up to date and better quality/performance than the older ones. Some of the older OEM specifications are listed here and depending on the performance level of your car are best ignored if you are looking for a quality high performance oil: Volkwagen Oil Approval Specifications Volkwagen introduced its own motor oil specifications in mid '90s. Since then this classification system is the starting point for selecting the technically suitable products for all vehicles manufacutred by the VW group (Volkswagen, Audi, Seat, Skoda). VW 500.00 Volkswagen specification for multigrade engine oils for gasoline engines with SAE 5W-X/10W-X viscosity. This is an "old" oil specification and is applicable to engines built before model year 2000 (up to August 1999). Oils with an approval made post March 1997 were given an alternative, later VW specification. VW 501.01 Conventional motor oils suitable for some VW engines built before MY 2000. This is an “old” oil specification and is applicable to engines built before model year 2000 (up to August 1999). Oils with an approval made post March 1997 were given an alternative, later VW specification. VW 502.00 Oil for gasoline engines. Successor of VW 501.01 and VW 500.00 specification. Recommended for those which are subject to arduous conditions. It must not be used for any engines with variable service intervals or any which are referred to under other specifications. VW 503.00 Long-life gasoline engine oil for VW cars with WIV (system for longer service intervals). Also meets ACEA A1, SAE 0W-30 or 5W-30 specification. VW 503.01 This specification is specifically for Audi RS4, Audi TT, S3 and Audi A8 6.0 V12 models with outputs of more than 180bhp, running with variable service intervals (30,000km or 2 years). Now superceded by the VW 504.00 specification. VW 504.00 The VW 504 00 specification supercedes the VW 503 00 and VW 503.01 specifications. VW 504 00 oils are suitable for engines meeting the demands of Euro IV emissions standards. VW 505.00 Passenger car diesel engine oil specification, minimum performance level CCMC PD-2. Lists viscosities SAE 5W-50, 10W-50/60, 15W-40/50, 20W-40/50 requiring 13% max. evaporation loss and SAE 5W-30/40, 10W-30/40 requiring 15% max. evaporation loss. VW 505.01 Special engine oil for VW turbodiesel engines with pump-injector-unit and for the V8 Commonrail turbodiesel engines. Meets ACEA B4 SAE 5W-40 specification. VW 506.00 These oils are suitable for diesel engines with extended service intervals of up to 50,000km / 2 years. Not for use on engines with a single injector pump. Oil change is indicated by the electronic service indicator. Viscosity is SAE 0W30. VW 506.01 These oils are especially for "Pumpe-Düse" (unit injector or "PD" engines) running on extended service intervals (30,000 - 50,000km / 24 months). Oil change is indicated by the electronic service indicator. VW 507.00 Low SAPS oils suitable for Euro 4 engines and almost all VAG diesel engines from 2000 onwards with extended service intervals, unitary injector pumps and also Pumpe-Düse ("PD") engines. Excludes V10, R5 engines and VW Commercial vehicles without fitted DPF (diesel particulate filters) – these must use a 506 01 specification oil. VW 508.00 This standard is not yet released. It will probably require a low SAPS oil with energy conserving properties. Mercedes Oil Approval Specifications The name of the MB specifications derives from the Mercedes Bluebook scheme, divided by numbered paragraphs and pages. It is used by dealers to identify the products certified by the manufacturer and their correct application on the engines. MB 229.1 For petrol and diesel engines. Minimum quality required ACEA A2/B2 with additional limits on engine. MB 229.3 For petrol and diesel engines. Minimum quality required ACEA A3 / B3 / B4 and MB 229.1. It can only certify 0/ 5 W-x oils. MB 229.31 Multigrade, low SPAsh engine oil, advised for both diesel and petrol engines of Mercedes Benz, Smart and Chrysler. Only low viscosity engine oils which can realize a 1,0% saving on used fuel in the M111 Fuel economy test (CEC L-54-T-96) can get this approval. In this test the fuel savings are compared to the performance of the Reference oil RL 191 (SAE 15W-40). MB 229.5 MB sheet for energy conserving oils for certain car and van engines. Approved oils must meet ACEA A3, B3 and B4 specification and some additional demands by Daimler Chrysler AG. Oil must be on the approval list. MB 229.51 Low SAPS Long Life engine oil for diesel engines with particle filter meeting emission EU-4 -> standards. BMW Oil Approval Specifications BMW Longlife-98 (LL98) Special long-life engine oil, approved by BMW. Also meets ACEA A3/B3, API SJ/CD, EC SAE 5W-40. Usually required for BMWs manufactured before MY 2002. BMW Longlife-01 (LL01) Special BMW approval for fully synthetic long-life oil. Product meets ACEA A3/B3 and API: SJ/CD EC-II. Usually required for BMWs built after MY 2002. Can also be used where a BMW Longlife-98 oil is recommended. BMW Longlife-04 (LL04) Special BMW approval for fully synthetic long-life oil. Viscosities are SAE 0W-30, 0W-40, 5W-30 and 5W-40. Usually required for BMWs equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Can also be used where a BMW Longlife-98 or BMW Longlife-01 oil is recommended. General Motors Oil Approval Specifications Motor Oils GM-LL-A-025 Special GM approval for long-life engine oil for gasoline engines. Viscosity is SAE 0W-30. Product meets ACEA A3/B3. Drain interval can be as long as 30 000 kms. GM-LL-B-025 Special GM approval for long-life engine oil for diesel engines. Viscosity is SAE 5W-40. Product meets ACEA A3/B3/B4. Drain interval can be as long as 50 000 kms. Automatic Transmission Fluids Dexron Type A, Suffix A Specification introduced in 1957. It requires the oil to meet certain limits regarding its kinematic viscosity. Dexron IID General Motors Dexron®-IID Specification. ATF issued in 1975. Contained ATF cooler corrosion requirements not listed in Dexron® - II. Dexron IIE General Motors Specification Dexron®-IIE. ATF issued in 1991 requiring improved low temperature performance compared to Dexron®-IID, 20 000 cP at minus 40 °C. Dexron IIIF GM specification for Automatic transmission oil introduced in 1994. Successor of Dexron IID and IIE. Dexron IIIG Successor of Dexron III(F) automatic transmission fluid. This has the same low temperature characteristics as Dexron IIE, but with modifications to anti-oxidancy and friction material. Introduced in 1997. Dexron IIIH Dexron III licence H was introduced in June 2003 to replace the Dexron III G fluid. It has an oxidatively stable base oil (group 2 or group 3). Oils according to this specification have longer maintenance of friction properties and anti-shrudder properties, better foam control and a longer fluid life. Dexron VI Specification introduced in 2005 to replace Dexron IIIH. This specification requires better stay-in-grade properties, oxidative stability and anti-foam characteristics. Oils meeting this specification can be used with extended drain intervals and are energy conserving. Ford Oil Approval Specifications Motor Oils Ford M2C913-A Engine oil, Initial and service fill, SAE 5W-30. This specification meets the ILSAC GF-2 and ACEA A1-98 and B1-98 and additional Ford requirements. Ford M2C913-B The Ford M2C913-B specification is released in Europe for initial fill engine oils used for lubrication of spark ignition engines using gasoline and for compression ignition engines using diesel fuels. The specification is also used to define engine oils for servicing Ford engines where applicable. The oil shall meet all the requirements of the ILSAC GF-2 and GF-3 specification, the ACEA A1-98 and B1-98 specification and additional Ford requirements. Ford M2C913-C Fully backwards compatible and is strongly recommended for all applications that currently require the specification Ford M2C913-B. The new engine oil provides various benefits to the customer such as improved fuel economy benefits and high robustness to biodiesel fuels. Ford M2C917-A Viscosity SAE 5W40 engine oil for pump injector diesel engines. Ford M2C934-A Extended drain engine oil for vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF). Automatic Transmission Fluids Ford Mercon Automatic transmission fluid specification for use in Ford automatic transmissions. Forc Mercon V Ford Mercon V specification. An automatic transmission fluid with improved protection against rust, corrosion, deposits and wear. It improves low-temperature shifting and guards against transmission shudder. Mercon V is fully backwards compatible with Mercon. Fiat Oil Approval Specifications These qualifications define the characteristics to be complied with by the lubricants used in engines with Otto and Diesel cycle for the first time of filling and during service. The standard is formed of a series of tests in the laboratory and on the engine to assess the performance level of lubricants. The laboratory tests qualify the lubricant evaluating the viscosity, cold yield value, tendency to produce foam, corrosion on copper reed, behaviour with rubbers and resistance to oxidisation. The engine tests assess the performance levels of lubricants in terms of sticking rings, deposits on pistons, wear and also oil consumption of certain diesel and petrol engines which are the most representative of Fiat Auto’s most advanced technologies. Fiat 9.55535-G1 Qualification for gasoline engine lubricants granting fuel economy and extended drain. Fiat 9.55535-G2 Qualification for gasoline engine lubricants with standard characteristics. Fiat 9.55535-H2 Qualification for gasoline engine lubricants, granting high performances and high viscosity at high temperatures. OEM recommended product also meets API: SM, ACEA A3-04/B3-04. Fiat 9.55535-H3 Qualification for gasoline engine lubricants granting very high performances. Fiat 9.55535-D2 Qualification for Diesel engine lubricants with standard characteristics. Fiat 9.55535-M2 Qualification for lubricants with extended drain. OEM recommended product also meets ACEA B3-04/B4-04, GM-LL-B-025. Fiat 9.55535-N2 Qualification for lubricants with a very good characteristics for turbocharged engines, Diesel and gasoline, with extended drain. Minimum requirement is ACEA A3/B4-04. Fiat 9.55535-S1 Qualification for Diesel and gasoline engine, with exhaust treatment system, lubricants, granting fuel economy and extended drain. OEM recommended product is also approved to ACEA C2. Fiat 9.55535-S2 Qualification for Diesel and gasoline engine, with exhaust treatment system, lubricants, with extended drain. OEM recommended product also meets: ACEA C3-04, MB 229.51 and API: SM/CF. Renault Oil Specifications Renault RN0700 Renault engine oil specification; introduced in 2007 upon introduction of the Laguna III. General requirements: ACEA A3/B4 or ACEA A5/B5. Renault RN0710 Renault engine oil specification; introduced in 2007 upon introduction of the Laguna III. General requirements: ACEA A3/B4 + additional Renault demands. Renault RN 0720 Renault engine oil specification; introduced in 2007 upon introduction of the Laguna III. General requirements: ACEA C3 + additional Renault demands. RN0720 is designed for use in the latest generation diesel engines equipped with DPF. Peugeot-Citroën Oil Specifications The French PSA group issued a set of oil specifications in 2009 in order to exercise greater control over the motor oils used in their vehicles. All specifications are based on ACEA specs but also require further conditions to be met. PSA B71 2290 Peugeot/Citroën engine oil specification introduced in 2009. B71 2290 is a low-SAPS oil intended for engines with diesel particulate filters and with Euro 5 emission standards. General specifications are: ACEA C2 or C3 with additional PSA tests. PSA B71 2294 Peugeot/Citroën engine oil specification introduced in 2009. Main specification: ACEA A3/B4 with additional PSA tests. PSA B71 2295 Peugeot/Citroën engine oil standard for engine before MY 1998. General specification: ACEA A2/B2. PSA B71 2296 Peugeot/Citroën engine oil specification introduced in 2009. General specifications: ACEA A3/B4 + additional PSA tests. We hope this helps clear up any confusion when chosing the right lubricant. Credit to Simon on the Porsche 968 website for some of this information.
  3. Here is an intersting article regarding the different types of esters in engine oils. It was originally posted by Tom NJ on Bobtheoilguy.com ESTERS IN SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS By T. G. Schaefer In the simplest terms, esters can be defined as the reaction products of acids and alcohols. Thousands of different kinds of esters are commercially produced for a broad range of applications. Within the realm of synthetic lubrication, a relatively small but still substantial family of esters have been found to be very useful in severe environment applications. This paper shall provide a general overview of the more common esters used in synthetic lubricants and discuss their important benefits and utilities. Esters have been used successfully in lubrication for more than 60 years and are the preferred stock in many severe applications where their benefits solve problems or bring value. For example, esters have been used exclusively in jet engine lubricants worldwide for over 50 years due to their unique combination of low temperature flowability with clean high temperature operation. Esters are also the preferred stock in the new synthetic refrigeration lubricants used with CFC replacement refrigerants. Here the combination of branching and polarity make the esters miscible with the HFC refrigerants and improves both low and high temperature performance characteristics. In automotive applications, the first qualified synthetic crankcase motor oils were based entirely on ester formulations and these products were quite successful when properly formulated. Esters have given way to PAOs in this application due to PAOs lower cost and their formulating similarities to mineral oil. Nevertheless, esters are often used in combination with PAOs in full synthetic motor oils in order to balance the effect on seals, solubilize additives, reduce volatility, and improve energy efficiency through higher lubricity. The percentage of ester used can vary anywhere from 5 to 25% depending upon the desired properties and the type of ester employed. The new frontier for esters is the industrial marketplace where the number of products, applications, and operating conditions is enormous. In many cases, the very same equipment which operates satisfactorily on mineral oil in one plant could benefit greatly from the use of an ester lubricant in another plant where the equipment is operated under more severe conditions. This is a marketplace where old problems or new challenges can arise at any time or any location. The high performance properties and custom design versatility of esters is ideally suited to solve these problems. Ester lubricants have already captured certain niches in the industrial market such as reciprocating air compressors and high temperature industrial oven chain lubricants. When one focuses on temperature extremes and their telltale signs such as smoking and deposits, the potential applications for the problem solving ester lubricants are virtually endless. Ester Chemistry In many ways esters are very similar to the more commonly known and used synthetic hydrocarbons or PAOs. Like PAOs, esters are synthesized from relatively pure and simple starting materials to produce predetermined molecular structures designed specifically for high performance lubrication. Both types of synthetic basestocks are primarily branched hydrocarbons which are thermally stable, have high viscosity indices, and lack the undesirable and unstable impurities found in conventional petroleum based oils. The primary structural difference between esters and PAOs is the presence of oxygen in the hydrocarbon molecules in the form of multiple ester linkages (COOR) which impart polarity to the molecules. This polarity affects the way esters behave as lubricants in the following ways: 1) Volatility: The polarity of the ester molecules causes them to be attracted to one another and this intermolecular attraction requires more energy (heat) for the esters to transfer from a liquid to a gaseous state. Therefore, at a given molecular weight or viscosity, the esters will exhibit a lower vapor pressure which translates into a higher flash point and a lower rate of evaporation for the lubricant. Generally speaking, the more ester linkages in a specific ester, the higher its flash point and the lower its volatility. 2) Lubricity: Polarity also causes the ester molecules to be attracted to positively charged metal surfaces. As a result, the molecules tend to line up on the metal surface creating a film which requires additional energy (load) to wipe them off. The result is a stronger film which translates into higher lubricity and lower energy consumption in lubricant applications. 3) Detergency/Dispersency: The polar nature of esters also makes them good solvents and dispersants. This allows the esters to solubilize or disperse oil degradation by-products which might otherwise be deposited as varnish or sludge, and translates into cleaner operation and improved additive solubility in the final lubricant. 4) Biodegradability: While stable against oxidative and thermal breakdown, the ester linkage provides a vulnerable site for microbes to begin their work of biodegrading the ester molecule. This translates into very high biodegradability rates for ester lubricants and allows more environmentally friendly products to be formulated. Another important difference between esters and PAOs is the incredible versatility in the design of ester molecules due to the high number of commercially available acids and alcohols from which to choose. For example, if one is seeking a 6 cSt synthetic basestock, the choices available with PAOs are a straight cut 6 cSt or a “dumbbell” blend of a lighter and heavier PAO. In either case, the properties of the resulting basestock are essentially the same. With esters, literally dozens of 6 cSt products can be designed each with a different chemical structure selected for the specific desired property. This allows the “ester engineer” to custom design the structure of the ester molecules to an optimized set of properties determined by the end customer or application. The performance properties that can be varied in ester design include viscosity, viscosity index, volatility, high temperature coking tendencies, biodegradability, lubricity, hydrolytic stability, additive solubility, and seal compatibility. As with any product, there are also downsides to esters. The most common concern when formulating with ester basestocks is compatibility with the elastomer material used in the seals. All esters will tend to swell and soften most elastomer seals however, the degree to which they do so can be controlled through proper selection. When seal swell is desirable, such as in balancing the seal shrinkage and hardening characteristics of PAOs, more polar esters should be used such as those with lower molecular weight and/or higher number of ester linkages. When used as the exclusive basestock, the ester should be designed for compatibility with seals or the seals should be changed to those types which are more compatible with esters. Another potential disadvantage with esters is their ability to react with water or hydrolyze under certain conditions. Generally this hydrolysis reaction requires the presence of water and heat with a relatively strong acid or base to catalyze the reaction. Since esters are usually used in very high temperature applications, high amounts of water are usually not present and hydrolysis is rarely a problem in actual use. Where the application environment may lead to hydrolysis, the ester structure can be altered to greatly improve its hydrolytic stability and additives can be selected to minimize any effects. The following is a discussion of the structures and features of the more common ester families used in synthetic lubrication. Diesters Diesters were the original ester structures introduced to synthetic lubricants during the second World War. These products are made by reacting monohydric alcohols with dibasic acids creating a molecule which may be linear, branched, or aromatic and with two ester groups. Diesters which are often abbreviated DBE (dibasic acid esters) are named after the type of dibasic acid used and are often abbreviated with letters. For example, a diester made by reacting isodecyl alcohol with adipic acid would be known as an “adipate” type diester and would be abbreviated “DIDA” (Diisodecyl Adipate). Listed below are the more common families of diesters used in synthetic lubricants, and the alcohols most commonly employed. Adipates are the most widely used diesters due to their low relative cost and good balance of properties. They generally range from about 2.3 to 5.3 cSt at 100°C and exhibit pour points below -60°C. The viscosity indices of adipates usually run from about 130 to 150 and their oxidative stability, like most of the diesters, are comparable to PAOs. The primary difference between adipate diesters and PAOs is the presence of two ester linkages and the associated polarity benefits outlined previously. The most common use of adipate diesters is in combination with PAOs in numerous applications such as screw compressor oils, gear and transmission oils, automotive crankcase oils, and hydraulic fluids. Adipates are also used as the sole basestock where biodegradability is desired or high temperature cleanliness is critical such as in textile lubricants and oven chain oils. Azelates, Sebacates, and Dodecanedioates are similar to adipates except that in each case the carbon chain length (backbone) of the dibasic acid is longer. This “backbone stretching” significantly increases viscosity index and improves the lubricity characteristics of the ester while retaining all the desirable properties of the adipates. The only downside to these types of diesters is price which tends to run about 50 - 100+% higher than adipates at the wholesale level. This group of linear DBEs are mainly used in older military specifications and where the lubricity factor becomes an important parameter. Phthalates are aromatic diesters and this ring structure greatly reduces the viscosity index (usually well below 100) and eliminates most of the biodegradability benefit. In all other respects, phthalates behave similar to other diesters and are about 20 - 30% lower in cost. Phthalates are used extensively in air compressor lubricants (especially the reciprocating type) where low viscosity index is the norm and low cost clean operation is desirable. Dimerates are made by combining two oleic acids which creates a large branched dibasic acid from which interesting diesters are made. Dimerates exhibit high viscosity and high viscosity indices while retaining excellent low temperature flow. Compared to adipates, dimerates are higher in price (30 - 40%), have marginal biodegradability, and are not as clean in high temperature operations. Their lubricity is good and they are often used in synthetic gear oils and 2-cycle oils. The alcohols used to make diesters will also affect the properties of the finished esters and thus are important factors in the design process. For example, three of the common alcohols used to make diesters each contain eight carbons, and when reacted with adipic acid, all create a dioctyl adipate. However, the properties are entirely different. The n-octyl adipate would have the highest viscosity and the highest viscosity index (about 50% higher then the 2-ethylhexyl adipate) but would exhibit a relatively high freeze point making their use in low temperature applications virtually impossible. By branching the octyl alcohol, the other two DOAs exhibit no freeze point tendencies and have pour points well below -60°C. The isooctyl adipate offers the best balance of properties combining a high viscosity index with a wide temperature range. The 2-ethylhexyl adipate has a VI about 45 units lower and a somewhat higher volatility. These examples demonstrate the importance of combining the right alcohols with the right acids when designing diester structures and allows the ester engineer a great deal of flexibility in his work. In addition, the alcohols may be reacted alone or blended with other alcohols to form coesters with their own unique properties. Polyol Esters The term “polyol esters” is short for neopentyl polyol esters which are made by reacting monobasic acids with polyhedric alcohols having a neopentyl structure. The unique feature of the structure of polyol ester molecules is the fact that there are no hydrogens on the beta-carbon. Since this “beta-hydrogen” is the first site of thermal attack on diesters, eliminating this site substantially elevates the thermal stability of polyol esters and allows them to be used at much higher temperatures. In addition, polyol esters usually have more ester groups than the diesters and this added polarity further reduces volatility and enhances the lubricity characteristics while retaining all the other desirable properties inherent with diesters. This makes polyol esters ideally suited for the higher temperature applications where the performance of diesters and PAOs begin to fade. Like diesters, many different acids and alcohols are available for manufacturing polyol esters and indeed an even greater number of permutations are possible due to the multiple ester linkages. Unlike diesters, polyol esters (POEs) are named after the alcohol instead of the acid and the acids are often represented by their carbon chain length. For example, a polyol ester made by reacting a mixture of nC8 and nC10 fatty acids with trimethylolpropane alcohol would be referred to as a “TMP” ester and represented as TMP C8C10. The following is a list of the more common types of polyol esters: Neopentyl Glycols (NPGs) - 2 Hydroxyls Trimethylolpropanes (TMPs) - 3 Hydroxyls Pentaerythritols (PEs) - 4 Hydroxyls DiPentaerythritols (DiPEs) - 6 Hydroxyls Each of the alcohols shown above have no beta-hydrogens and differ primarily in the number of hydroxyl groups they contain for reaction with the fatty acids. The difference in ester properties as they relate to the alcohols are primarily those related to molecular weight such as viscosity, pour point, flash point, and volatility. The versatility in designing these fluids is primarily related to the selection and mix of the acids esterified onto the alcohols. The normal or linear acids all contribute similar performance properties with the physicals being influenced by their carbon chain length or molecular weight. For example, lighter acids such as C5 may be desirable for reducing low temperature viscosity on the higher alcohols, or the same purpose can be achieved by esterifying longer acids (C10) onto the shorter alcohols. While the properties of the normal acids are mainly related to the chain length, there are some more subtle differences among them which can allow the formulator to vary such properties as thermal stability and lubricity. Branched acids add a new dimension since the length, location, and number of branches all impact the performance of the final ester. For example, a branch incorporated near the acid group may help to hinder hydrolysis while multiple branches may be useful for building viscosity, improving low temperature flow, and enhancing thermal stability and cleanliness. The versatility of this family is best understood when one considers that multiple acids are usually co-esterified with the polyol alcohol allowing the ester engineer to control multiple properties in a single ester. Indeed single acids are rarely used in polyol esters because of the enchanced properties that can be obtained through co-esterification. Polyol esters can extend the high temperature operating range of a lubricant by as much as 50 - 100°C due to their superior stability and low volatility. They are also renowned for their film strength and increased lubricity which is useful in reducing energy consumption in many applications. The only downside of polyol esters compared to diesters is their higher price tag, generally 20 - 70+% higher on a wholesale basis. The major application for polyol esters is jet engine lubricants where they have been used exclusively for more than 40 years. In this application, the oil is expected to flow at -65°C, pump readily at -40°C, and withstand sump temperature over 200°C with drain intervals measured in years. Only polyol esters have been found to satisfy this demanding application and incorporating even small amounts of diesters or PAOs will cause the lubricant to fail vital specifications.Polyol esters are also the ester of choice for blending with PAOs in passenger car motor oils. This change from lower cost diesters to polyols was driven primarily by the need for reduced fuel consumption and lower volatility in modern specifications. They are sometimes used in 2-cycle oils as well for the same reasons. In industrial markets polyol esters are used extensively in synthetic refrigeration lubricants due to their miscibility with non-chlorine refrigerants. They are also widely used in very high temperature operations such as industrial oven chains, tenter frames, stationary turbine engines, high temperature grease, fire resistant transformer coolants, fire resistant hydraulic fluids, and textile lubricants. In general, polyol esters represent the highest performance level available for high temperature applications at a reasonable price. Although they cost more than many other types of synthetics, the benefits often combine to make this chemistry the most cost effective in severe environment applications. The primary benefits include extended life, higher temperature operation, reduced maintenance and downtime, lower energy consumption, reduced smoke and disposal, and biodegradability. Other esters While diesters and polyol esters represent the most widely used ester families in synthetic lubrication, two other families are worth mentioning. These are monoesters and trimellitates. Monoesters are made by reacting monohydric alcohols with monobasic fatty acids creating a molecule with a single ester linkage and linear or branched alkyl groups. These products are generally very low in viscosity (usually under 2 cSt at 100°C) and exhibit extremely low pour points and high VIs. The presence of the ester linkage imparts polarity which helps to offset the high volatility expected with such small molecules. Hence, when compared to a hydrocarbon of equal molecular weight, a monoester will have a significantly higher flash point giving it a broader temperature range in use. Monoesters are used primarily for extremely cold applications such as in Arctic hydraulic oils and deep sea drilling. They can also be used in formulating automotive aftermarket additives to improve cold starting. Trimellitates are aromatic triesters which are similar to the phthalates described under diesters but with a third ester linkage. By taking on three alcohols, the trimellitates are significantly more viscous then the linear adipates or phthalates. Viscosities range from about 9 to 20 cSt at 100°C. Like phthalates, trimellitates have a low viscosity index and poor biodegradability with a price range between adipates and polyols. Trimellitates are generally used where high viscosity is needed as in gear lubricants, chain lubricants, and grease. Summary Esters are a broad and diverse family of synthetic lubricant basestocks which can be custom designed to meet specific physical and performance properties. The inherent polarity of esters improves their performance in lubrication by reducing volatility, increasing lubricity, providing cleaner operation, and making the products biodegradable. A wide range of available raw materials allow an ester designer the ability to optimize a product over a wide range of variables in order to maximize the performance and value to the client. They may be used alone in very high temperature applications for optimum performance or blended with PAOs or other synthetic basestocks where their complementary properties improve the balance of the finished lubricant. Esters have been used in synthetic lubricants for more than 60 years and continue to grow as the drive for efficiency make operating environments more severe. Because of the complexity involved in the designing, selecting, and blending of an ester basestock, the choice of the optimum ester should be left to a qualified ester engineer who can better balance the desired properties.
  4. If you are not really interested in knowing about oil and just want to know what oil is best for your car, here is a quick reference guide for Motul engine oils.
  5. Oil Groups were created to separate the different qualities of lubricants being manufactured around the world. These Groups are basically different categories of the refinement processes used to develop the primary liquid before any additives are used. The Groups are: Group I - Crude oil, totally mineral base, simple refining method. Still contains waxes and other contaminants. Group II - Crude oil again, but more advance refining methods to improve its qualities. A very small percentage of wax remaining. Group III - This group is an advanced Group II; It has all of its waxes and contaminants removed and been further refined by a process called 'Hydrocracking' (Commonly called Synthetic) Group IV - POA or Poly-Alpha Olefines. This is not Crude oil based and is a true synthetic. Group V - Esters. There are countless Esters available, all with similar qualities. This group is the most advanced method of creating and refining synthetic lubricant stocks. Pictures make it so much easier to understand. The Neopoly Esters shown are an example of 2 different processes for the one material and the gain that can be achieved. The higher up the group is, the more expensive it is to produce. If you are buying synthetic oil and the oil you are getting is marked HC/MC or VHVI/XHVI then it is a Group III "Synthetic" and not a true Group IV or V Synthetic. It really does make all the difference.
  6. Motul Viscosity Setting

    Most road going cars wouldn't need an exact viscosity in order to get from A to B. But for some race cars with highly spec'd engines, a certain Viscosity Setting is required to get the most out the engine. Viscosity Setting is not a widely known topic as it is usually reserved for the technically minded engineers of well financed race teams. Having a greater knowledge on lubricants could make all the difference at the track and on the street. For the current line of 300V, there is a Viscosity Setting index by which you can follow to get an exact desired viscosity. HTHS = High Temp/High Shear
  7. Motul introduction

    Motul understands that the subject of oil and lubricants can be difficult at times, especially when the longevity and performance of your pride and joy relies on the right products. Choosing the wrong products could lead to an expensive repair bill. Each month a technical paper will be posted to address some of these issues you face when it comes to choosing the right product. To begin, here's an outline of Motul's history: Established in New York over 150 years ago in 1853, Swan & Finch specialised in the production of high quality lubricants. With the strong national presence in the USA, Swan & Finch expanded its lubricant business to Europe where in 1932, the company moved its entire operation to France and later became known as Motul. Today from the Paris headquarters in France the MOTUL line of premium performance products are sold in some 65 different countries. Focused on improving the reliability and performance of lubricants, Motul dramatically altered the lubrication industry by being Pioneers to set forth and shape the history of motor lubricants. 1953 - Motul produced the World’s first Multigrade Oil. 1966 - Motul produced the World’s first Semi Synthetic oil 1971 - Motul produced the World’s first 100% Synthetic oil with Ester. 2004 - Motul produced the World’s first Double Ester Technology – 300V Engine Oils. The full range of Motul Oil from Mineral to 100% Synthetic and 300V range is designed to be superior in its respective application. MOTUL has become a dominant presence in most International Motorsports due to their ability to produce oils to genuinely endure and protect during the toughest conditions in Motor Racing whilst providing Extra Horsepower! Maintaining this presence over many decades has come via a commitment to evolve side by side with the Engine Technology of today and tomorrow. The exact formulations used by these Motorsport Champions can be purchased from your local Australian Motorcycle Dealer. The World’s Top Motorcycle Racing teams and most discriminating enthusiasts agree on one thing – MOTUL, and for the right reasons. Armed with their technical partnerships with the most prestigious manufactures in Europe (BMW, Porsche, VW), while testing their best products in the most extreme competitive conditions (F1, Cart, WRC and more), Motul has developed a line of oils to meet your every need. A competition lubricant for all Basing itself on the experience gained with the first semi-synthetic lubricant for cars, Motul Century 2100 launched already in 1966, Motul created a stir in 1971 by developing a 100% synthetic lubricant made from esters of vegetal origin and drawing on aeronautical technology. As a tribute to the 300 victories obtained by the brand at that date, this revolutionary lubricant was called '300V'. To demonstrate the validity of this innovation, Motul participated at the highest competition level in Formula 1 with the teams Frank Williams-Motul in 1971 and BRM in 1974. At the same time, Motul engineers developed versions for 4-stroke motorcycle engines and also 2-stroke engines with Motul Century 300 2T. As early as 1977 Takazumi Katayama won the supreme title in the 350cc World Championship. A symbol was born! No less than 6 viscosity grades of the 300V Motorsport Line are now available, covering a wide range of race conditions and thus allowing the performances of each engine to be optimised in terms of the expected result, whether it be a matter of the type of race, distance, engine fuel dilution, operating temperatures or else other specific parameters. Here is a video of the history of Motul: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_7-wKVuh4RI&feature=player_embedded For more technical info visit : http://www.motul.fr/au/en
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